This page contains a list of Web links that may be of use to visitors interested in the study of Libyan and North African heritage, culture and society. Please feel free to contact us with suggestions for other links or information you think should be included here.

Libya Online

The links under this heading are related to archaeology and conservation in Libya, and include recording work undertaken by members of the British Institute for Libyan and Northern African Studies (formerly the Society for Libyan Studies) and/or sponsored by BILNAS:

Libya’s Mosaic Heritage

Dr Will Wootton, Senior Lecturer in Roman Art at King’s College, London, talks about Libya’s Mosaic Heritage at the V&A BAMM Forum 2012. Click here to view this presentation on YouTube

Training In Action — Conservation and Heritage Management

This short film documents the training that took place in July 2017, conducted by the Training in Action project. The week of training recorded here was run by King’s College London (Will Wootton and Hiba Alkhalaf) and focused on conservation and management of heritage sites. Click here to view the short film on YouTube

For more information about the project visit the Training In Action website at 

Training In Action — Interviews

These interviews were conducted with the Tunisian and Libyan trainees during the final season of training for the year 2019 – September. The advanced trainees from Year One and the new ones that joined the project in Year Two have developed their own practice by conducting ‘Mini-Projects’, during which they collected their own data and applied the skills that they had learned. Click here to watch these interviews on YouTube

The Getty Conservation Institute’s MOSAIKON Initiative

MOSAIKON is a collaborative, regional initiative dedicated to improving the conservation, presentation and management of mosaics in the southern and eastern Mediterranean region. The initiative is a partnership of the Getty Conservation Institute, the Getty Foundation, the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM) in Rome, and the International Committee for the Conservation of Mosaics (ICCM).

Through a series of interrelated activities, MOSAIKON aims to build capacity, develop replicable models of best practice, and promote the dissemination and exchange of information regarding the conservation and management of archaeological mosaics, both those in situ and those in museums and storage.

For more information click here to visit the GCI’s MOSAIKON Initiative website

Archaeology in Libya

Lepcis Magna excavations

Lepcis Magna is a World Heritage site on the Mediterranean coast in the Tripolitania region of Libya. Originally founded by the Phoenicians in the 10th Century BC, it survived the attention of Spartan colonists, became a Punic city and eventually part of the new Roman province of Africa around 23 BC.

In 1994 a new excavation was started by a team of professional archaeologists from a variety of academic and research institutes around the UK. The dig was led by Dr. Hafed Walda of Kings College London and sponsored by the Society.

See “Recent Excavations at Lepcis Magna” – Libyan Studies / Volume 26 / January 1995, pp 101-104

Euesperides(Benghazi) – the 1950s Ashmolean Excavations

There was a time when the Department of Antiquities at the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford was prosperous enough to support a venture which called itself the Ashmolean Expedition to Cyrenaica. The form this exercise took was the excavation over three seasons between 1952 and 1954 of parts of the site of the Greek city of Euesperides situated on the outskirts of Benghazi.

See “Euesperides: the Rescue of an Excavation” – Libyan Studies / Volume 25 / January 1994, pp 125-136

The Saharan Megalakes Project

The aim of the Sahara Megalakes Project is to further our understanding of the chronology of climate change recorded in Lake Megachad, the Chotts Megalake basins and Lake Megafezzan in the Fezzan basin in south-west Libya.

The Fezzan Project

The Palaeohydrology and Palaeoclimate of Lake Megafezzan.

See “Monitoring vegetation change in desert oases by remote sensing; a case study in the Libyan Fazzan” – Libyan Studies / Volume 34 / January 2003, pp 153-166

Fezzan Rock Art Project

The Web page for the British Museum’s African rock art image project.

Polish Archaeological Mission in Ptolemais

Since 2001 the Institute of Archaeology of Warsaw University has conducted excavations in Ptolemais, an important antique city in Cyrenaica. The main goal of this project is to broaden our knowledge about the living conditions of the inhabitants of the city from the Hellenistic period to the appearance of the Arabs in the mid-seventh century AD.

Institutes, organisations and other useful resources

Africa Antiqua

Africa Antiqua is dedicated to providing information on the ancient Maghreb (between the First Millennium BC and the Eighth Century AD). It presents scientific news, research and methodological tools in the fields of archaeology and history, serving and supporting the ‘Africanist’ community and doctoral students undertaking research in this field. Through a directory of theses, Africa Antiqua aims to encourage the exchange of research and information and to expand its network of researchers and scholars.

The Arcadia Fund

Arcadia is a charitable fund, supporting charities and scholarly institutions that preserve cultural heritage and the environment. We also give grants that promote open access to information. Since 2002, Arcadia has awarded more than US$331 million to projects around the world.

Archaeological Institute of America

A nonprofit group founded in 1879, the Archaeological Institute of America (AIA) is North America’s oldest and largest organization devoted to the world of archaeology. The Institute’s members include professional archaeologists, corresponding members, students, and enthusiasts, all united by a shared passion for archaeology and its role in furthering human knowledge.

The British Academy

The British Academy is the UK’s expert body that supports and speaks for the humanities and social sciences – that rich variety of disciplines that study peoples, cultures and societies, past, present and future. The Academy funds research across the UK and in other parts of the world, in disciplines ranging from archaeology to economics, from psychology to history, and from literature to law.

The British School at Athens

The British School at Athens is an educational charity founded in 1886. It now forms part of the British Academy’s network of Sponsored Institutes and Societies (BASIS) which sustains and supports British research overseas.  The School exists to promote research of international excellence in all disciplines pertaining to Greek lands, from fine art to archaeometry and in all periods to modern times.

The British School at Rome

The BSR’s was founded in 1901 as a ‘school’ for research in archaeology and Italian studies. ‘Every period of the language and literature, antiquities, art and history of Rome and Italy shall be considered as coming within the province of the [BSR]’. The majority of the staff are based in Rome but a small London office is also maintained at the British Academy.

EAMENA: Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa

EAMENA is a collaborative project based at the Universities of Oxford, Leicester, and Durham whose aim is to document, understand, and monitor the condition of archaeological sites in the Middle East and North Africa using a combination of rapid remote sensing techniques and fieldwork. These data are recorded in an online database.

The project is funded by the Arcadia Fund and has also been supported by the British Council’s Cultural Protection Fund to provide training to and strengthen ties with regional partners. The project’s work in North Africa in particular is led by the Leicester team.

Selected Publications about EAMENA’s work in Libya:

Rayne, L., Gatto, M.C., Abdulaati, L., Al-Haddad, M., Sterry, M., Sheldrick, N., & Mattingly, D. 2020. “Detecting change at archaeological sites in North Africa using open-source satellite imagery”. Remote Sensing 12, 3694. doi:10.3390/rs12223694.

Nikolaus, J., Rayne, L., & Sheldrick, N. 2020. “The EAMENA and MarEA Projects: Notes on current Training and Research in Libya and beyond.” Quaderni di Archeologia della Libia 22: 203–206.

Hobson, M. 2019. “EAMENA training in the use of satellite remote sensing and digital technologies in heritage management: Libya and Tunisia workshops 2017-2019”. Libyan Studies 50: 63–71. DOI:

Rayne, L., Sheldrick, N. & Nikolaus, J. 2017. “Endangered Archaeology in Libya: recording damage and destruction”. Libyan Studies 48: 23–49. DOI:

For further EAMENA publications on project webpage: 

Global Heritage Fund and Global Heritage Network

Global Heritage Fund’s mission is to protect, preserve and sustain the most significant and endangered cultural heritage sites in the developing world.

Global Heritage Network (GHN) was established by Global Heritage Fund (GHF) in response to the damage and destruction facing culutral heritage sites throughout the developing world. GHN is an online multimedia platform that uses Google Earth and social networking for threat monitoring and collaborative preservation of those sites.

The Institute of Archaeology (University College London)

Founded in 1937 as a centre for archaeological training, the Institute is one of the largest archaeology departments in the world with global coverage in its research and teaching activities.

A blog and a monitoring service on political, diplomatic and economic developments in Libya written by Society member, Jason Pack,  a researcher of Middle Eastern and World History at Cambridge University.

Libyan British Business Council (LBBC)

The LBBC was established in 2004 to promote trade and investment between the British and Libyan business communities. It provides trade development initiatives, networking opportunities and market research to members that include some of the world’s biggest companies.


Livius is an excellent resource for information and articles on ancient history. Written and maintained since 1996 by the Dutch historian Jona Lendering, the website is not for profit.


Pleiades gives scholars, students, and enthusiasts worldwide the ability to use, create, and share historical geographic information about the ancient world in digital form. At present, Pleiades has extensive coverage for the Greek and Roman world, and is expanding into Ancient Near Eastern, Byzantine, Celtic, and Early Medieval geography.

School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS)

SOAS, University of London, is the only Higher Education institution in Europe specialising in the study of Asia, Africa and the Near and Middle East. Our academic focus on the languages, cultures and societies of Africa, Asia and the Middle East makes us an indispensable interpreter in a complex world.

TARA (Trust for African Rock Art)

TARA is the world’s only organisation dedicated to creating greater global awareness of the importance and endangered state of African rock art. It has received support and recognition from the Ford Foundation, the Andrew Mellon Foundation and the National Geographic Society, among others.


UNESCO is a specialist agency of the United Nations (UN). Its purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education, science, and culture.

Disclaimer: The Society for Libyan Studies can accept no responsibility for the accuracy or the content of these links. Inclusion of a link from this page to another site in no way represents an endorsement of the information or services offered by that site.